|Grade Levels||Group Size||Tutor Type||Students Per Tutor Per Year*||Qualifying Studies||Average Effect Size|
*Estimated number of students a tutor can serve in a year. This is based on an estimate of 9 sessions per day, and one-half year of tutoring for each student. For example, a tutor working with groups of two would see 18 students a day, and if students receive a half year of tutoring, tutors could see 36 students in a year.
Fraction Face-Off! (FFO!) is a proven small-group systematic, structured tutoring programs designed to promote knowledge of fractions to 4th grade students. FFO! emphasizes the three domains listed below:
- Understanding fraction magnitude, including comparing, ordering, and placing fractions on number lines, and fraction equivalencies;
- Fraction calculations, including an understanding of the operations and executing the operations;
- Fraction word problems to contextualize fractions as numbers in everyday contexts and strengthen fraction magnitude understanding.
Tutors are usually hired by school districts. Tutors may be full-time or may work part of the school day. Full-time tutors should be able to provide 9 30-minute sessions daily (18-36 children). Tutors usually tutor in person, but may also work remotely when in-person tutoring is not possible.
FFO! is designed to promote fraction understanding for at-risk learners (students who have shown previous difficulty with mathematics) in the 4th grade.
FFO! does not require any technology to implement.
Research shows that success in fractions provides the foundation for success in algebra, which leads to success with higher-level mathematics. A solid understanding of fraction concepts is vital for a student’s positive movement through the mathematics curriculum. Fraction Face-Off! uses explicit instruction to address two types of understanding about fractions: the part/whole interpretation of fractions and the measurement interpretation of fractions. This program emphasizes measurement interpretation. This includes understanding the magnitude of fractions: comparing two fractions, ordering three fractions, and placing fractions on a 0-1 and 0-2 number line. Program materials for FFO! include a teacher manual and a supplemental materials packet. The teacher manual includes lesson guides, activity guides, and implementation directions. The supplemental materials packet includes student lessons, flashcards, game boards, and templates for all of the student materials and manipulatives used to implement the FFO! program.
Tutoring sessions for FFO! are conducted 3 times a week for 35 minutes per session.
Professional Development, Progress Monitoring, and Follow-up
Fuchs Tutoring offers professional development support for school and district personnel to take on the role of (1) FFO! tutors and (2) FFO! coaches. Tutors implement the program directly with students. Coaches are matched with approximately 10 tutors each, and they support tutors through weekly observations with feedback and monthly group tutor meetings. For both roles, candidates complete a certification process and receive ongoing support from Fuchs Tutoring staff.
|Certification Process||College degree; tutor experience preferred. Participation in 2-day Training Institute (offered twice-annually, location and format TBD). Brief assessment and/or performance task. Submission of tutoring practice video for review, initially and on an annual basis thereafter to retain certification.||College or advanced degree; demonstrated prior experience as math specialist or coach. Participation in 3-day Training Institute (tutor training plus additional day for coach training; offered twice annually, location and format TBD). Completion of tutor certification process (assessment and tutoring practice video review). Coach competency task assessment Quarterly coach review process with Fuchs Tutoring Staff.|
|Ongoing Support from Fuchs Tutoring||Match with certified coach, if needed. Monthly booster training webinars. Access to Pirate Math tutor online community of practice.||Monthly facilitated group coach meetings. Monthly booster training webinars. Access to Pirate Math tutor online community of practice.|
Research on Program Outcomes
Multiple randomized control trials for Fractions Face-Off! have been conducted and published in peer-review journals. In the most recently published randomized control trial, Malone et al. (2019) randomly assigned 225 fourth graders with low start-of-year math performance to three conditions: a business-as-usual control group and 2 variants of Fractions Face-Off!. One variant included a component on fraction-decimal magnitude; the other included a component on fraction word problems and calculations. The other components in the two Fractions Face-Off! Conditions were the same. Because the variant with word problems and calculations produced better outcomes than the one with decimals, it was adopted for dissemination. ESs favoring Fractions Face-Off! over the control group for the disseminated variant were as follows: 1.07 for placing fractions on a 0-2 number line; 0.59 on released NAEP items (the qualifying ES for this website); 0.82 on fraction word problems; and 3.14 on calculations.
Malone, A.S., Fuchs, L.S., Sterba, S.K., Fuchs, D., & Foreman-Murray, L. (2019). Does an integrated focus on fractions and decimals improve at-risk students’ rational number magnitude performance? Contemporary Educational Psychology.