Reading & Math, Inc.
|Grade Levels||Group Size||Tutor Type||Qualifying Studies||Average Effect Size|
|K-3||1: 1 or 1:2||AmeriCorps Members||2||+0.47|
|Free and Reduced Lunch|
Reading Corps is a tutoring model that provides one-on-one—or one-on-two—reading interventions for kindergarten through grade 3 students, using AmeriCorps members who embed into the school. Reading Corps places a strong focus on synthesizing sounds to decode text. It was developed by ServeMinnesota and is disseminated by the non-profit, Reading and Math, Inc.
Tutors in Reading Corps are part- or full-time AmeriCorps members who are comprehensively trained and fully supported by the program. Schools partner with Reading and Math, Inc. to recruit community members to serve as the tutors. Schools also allocate a small portion of staff time to be trained in—and provide ongoing support for—implementing the program, including coaching tutors. Full-time tutors provide 15 or more 20-minute sessions per day, and part-time tutors provide between 9-12 20-minute sessions. Tutors usually tutor in person, but may also work online when in-person tutoring is not possible.
Reading Corps was designed for students in kindergarten through grade 3 who score below expectations for development of foundational literacy skills. A school staff member selects eligible students for the tutor caseload based on assessment data the program helps collect. Students receive 20 minutes a day of tutoring, usually for about a semester, until progress monitoring data indicate they meet eligibility for exiting the program, after which time they are monitored until the end of the school year.
None. The only commitments required by schools that adopt Reading Corps are (a) space for tutoring, (b) staff in-kind time (typically less than one day per month), and (c) agreement to use the program.
Reading Corps focuses on developing foundational literacy skills. It is curriculum neutral but standards-aligned, and it uses evidence-based practice strategies that improve sound awareness, phonics skills, and reading fluency. In older grades, students also practice comprehension skills.
Reading Corps uses formative assessments developed by FastBridge Learning that have strong technical characteristics for reliability and criterion/predictive validity. These assessments are used in the fall for determining eligibility (via program-developed cut-scores that predict success on tests like the ACTs), in follow-up seasonal benchmark periods, and for ongoing weekly progress monitoring. The Reading Corps program provides access to a data management system that gives up-to-date reports on student performance as well as important dosage and fidelity information. School staff and administration can access these data on-demand.
Initial training typically occurs before each school year (though mid-year starts are permitted). The school-appointed staff member provides on-demand support for tutors when scheduling students and interacting with teachers, as well as monthly coaching and feedback that focuses on ensuring high fidelity to the program. Additionally, the program assigns a Coaching Specialist to each school, who provides additional regular (e.g., monthly) coaching to both the tutor and the school staff member and supports all data-driven decision-making practices (e.g., eligibility; graph interpretation; exit decisions).
Professional Development, Progress Monitoring, and Follow-up
Reading Corps provides all training and ongoing professional development for tutors and school staff. The included data management system collects and reports on both student progress in literacy skills as well as tutor and program fidelity. School and program staff collaborate on interpreting and responding to data on student progress and program fidelity.
Annual Per Tutor Costs: Tutor is an AmeriCorps member
|Annual Per Tutor Cost |
|Funding Support (AmeriCorps resources and other federal funding)||$15,000|
|Total||$15,000 to $30,000 per tutor|
Research on Program Outcomes
Two studies have evaluated the literacy outcomes of Reading Corps. Both were student randomized studies, one taking place in 24 schools across Minnesota and the other in 10 schools in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The evaluation in Minnesota involved 622 K-3 students in a mix of urban and rural schools, with 63% FRL and 41% FRL respectively. About 60% of students were White, 16% Black, 14% Hispanic, and 27% ELL. Students in K-1 were assessed mid-year and scored significantly higher on measures of Letter Sound Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency, and Oral Reading Fluency (effect size = +0.74). Second and third graders were assessed at the end of the school year, with Reading Corps students scoring significantly higher on Oral Reading Fluency (effect size = +0.28). The evaluation in Wisconsin involved 176 K-1 students, of whom 85% were Black, 8% Hispanic, and 81% eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. Literacy skills were assessed after one semester, with Reading Corps students outperforming control students on Letter Sound Fluency (effect size = +0.55) and Nonsense Word Fluency (effect size = +0.46). Averaging across the two studies, weighting by sample size, the mean effect size was +0.47.
- Markovitz, C., et al. (September 2018). Impact evaluation of the Wisconsin Reading Corps Program: Executive summary. Chicago, IL: NORC at the University of Chicago.
- Markovitz, C., et al. (October 2018). Impact evaluation of the Minnesota Reading Corps K-3 Program (2017-18): Final report. Chicago, IL: NORC at the University of Chicago.